Janata Ventilator

SDM College of Engg & Technology, Dharwad
Janata Ventilator (Mechanical Ventilator)
Design & Development by: Dr. M. R. Kappali,
                                            Professor, SDM College of Engg. & Technology, Dharwad
Support Group: Sri B.B.Barge, Mechanic; Sri M.D.Badiger, Mechanic; Sri Ashok Ghali, Skilled Helper; Mr. Chinmay Ghalagi, Final BE; Sri G.B.Koppad, Foreman;
Sri Yuvaraj Devadiga, Attender; Sri Neelappa Kolal, Attender…SDMCET
Prevailing Covid19 disease has motivated us to develop several life saving apparatus. Mechanical Ventilator is one of them. Many ventilator designs are already proposed having one or the other merit. It’s a technology fete! However it can be observed that these attempts are emanating from big corporates, big industries and leading technical institutes. Somehow the involvement of the traditional technicians, the mestris, the carpenters and workshop mechanics typically from the rural areas is not visible. They deserve to be involved to tap their competence which is of utmost relevance to their immediate locality. It’s in this context that the working model “Janata Ventilator” is developed. It’s built to be simple and fabricated with whatever materials immediately available with us. Our intention is to convey in simple the principle of working of a ventilator. It’s expected that after observing this working model, students and skilled technicians will start thinking of implementing it in their own setup with the available items. It’s quite possible that they come out with a model which is simpler, economic and faster to fabricate in their ambience. Such proposals are the ones we can rely upon in worst case scenario.
Mechanical ventilator is an apparatus or device which supports respiration mechanically for the patient experiencing difficulty in performing natural respiration. Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) is the widely employed method of doing it. Here an air bag, called AMBU Bag is connected to the nose/breathing track of the patient. When this bag is pressed, air inside it is pushed in to the lungs of the patient causing inspiration. When the pressure is released, air from the lungs comes out resulting in expiration. Pressing of the air bag can be done by a person manually (Manual Ventilation) but it’s too tiring to do for long durations. Hence it’s done mechanically using an external agency  like electrical motor, electromagnetic actuator, compressor, etc.

The ventilation frequency is normally 12-15 per minute and can go up to 120 per minute. The air volume pumped per minute is approximately 6 liters. Inspiration to Expiration Timing Ratio is normally 1:2. Air pressure is to be monitored to avoid damage to the breathing tracks and lungs.
Electric Motor drives Cycle Wheel which in turn drives Wooden Pulley Pair. This rotates Circular Disc. Cycle Wheel with its larger diameter helps to reduce the speed delivered by Electric Motor. Wooden Pulley facilitates finer speed variation, both up & down, deciding respiration rate. Due to Cam arrangement, circular motion of Circular Disc gets converted to linear motion of Horizontal Shaft making Moving Plate move to & fro. When Moving Plate moves forward, it presses Air Bag (held in place with Fixed Plate) thereby pushing fresh air in to patient’s lungs resulting in inspiration. When Moving Plate moves backward, air comes out of patient’s lungs resulting in expiration.

In the absence of electric supply, Manual Handle can be attached and manually rotated to continue ventilation without interruption.
Unique Features:

  • Simple speed reduction technique.
  • Volume of fresh air pumped can be changed. .
  • Un-interrupted ventilation using Manual Handle whenever the electric supply fails.
  • Simple for understanding and construction. Can be realized with locally available materials and technical skill, particularly in remote and rural areas.
  • Low cost and easy maintenance.
  • It can be a “worst case solution” in the event of non-availability of sophisticated ventilators.


  • Respectful thanks to our Revered President Poojya Dr. D.Veerendra Heggade

for the blessings and encouragement.

  • Hearty thanks to our respected Secretary Sri Jeevandhar Kumar and

our beloved Principal Dr. K. Gopinath for all the motivation and support.

© 2021 SDMCET Dharwad

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